The poultry industry makes up 1% of Indonesia’s gross domestic product and provides the protein needs of 232 million Indonesians. The complex poultry industry structure, starting from intensive poultry farms, semi-intensive broiler and layer farms, and small scale backyard poultry farms provide meat and eggs through traditional markets all over Indonesia. The introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus in 2003 has disrupted the productivity of the poultry industry. Vaccination is used as one of the 8 strategies to fight the influenza virus in poultry.
Since 2009, the Government of Indonesia, supported by the influenza expert network of OIE/FAO (OFFLU) and FAO – ECTAD Indonesia have tried to increase the capacity of eight (8) animal health diagnostic laboratories, PUSVETMA, BBLITVET and BBPMSOH to detect and monitor the presence of the avian influenza virus circulating in Indonesia. The laboratory network was then developed to identify potential virus variants; determining the candidate strains for challenge virus and monitoring the efficacy of AI vaccines used. The diagnostic methods are harmonized with standard biological reagents for high quality results.
The characterization of clade 2.1.3 H5N1 AI in the laboratory provided the following results:
A. Determine 4 vaccine strains:
1. A/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006;
4. A/Chicken/West Java (Nagrak) 30/2007
and 2 challenge strains:
1. A/Chicken/West Java-Subang/29/2007 and
2. A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 through the Director General of Livestock and Animal Health Service’s decision letter on the use of local vaccine that matches the virus epidemiologically.
B. Detect the new clade 220.127.116.11 H5N1 HPAI virus in mid-August 2012 that infects ducks and has spread to islands outside of Java. With the presence of two H5N1 HPAI clades, the HPAI situation in Indonesia becomes more complex and requires a rapid communication system. In relation to this matter, a web-based communication system has been developed to accelerate the reporting of HPAI H5N1 virus monitoring to decision makers at the National level. Communication methods between laboratories have been implemented within the Influenza Virus Monitoring (IVM) Online system, developed since 2011 and launched on 20th of May 2014.
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