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Wednesday, 30 April 2008

ITU/MIC Kyoto Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change 15-16 April 2008

Chairman’s Report (Final, 24 April)

1. The issue of global warming needs to be tackled from a global perspective, because its impact affects the entire planet and it is growing more serious every year. Estimates from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) showed that global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary cause of global warming, have risen by 70 per cent since 1970. In Kyoto, in December 1997, the world took concrete steps to mitigate global warming with an international agreement to limit and reduce GHG emissions. The first commitment period set out in the Kyoto Protocol began in 2008. In the intervening decade, the number of users of information and communication technologies (ICTs) worldwide has tripled. Kyoto is therefore the best place to launch a new work programme aimed at investigating the role that ICTs play in causing global warming, but also in monitoring, mitigating and adapting to climate change. The timing of this symposium is also highly appropriate because global measures under discussion at the symposium can be forwarded for appropriate action at the G8 Summit, to be held at Lake Toya, Hokkaido Prefecture in July 2008 and at other relevant occasions.

2. On this basis, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) of the government of Japan co organized the Kyoto Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change, at the Kyoto International Conference Centre, on April 15 16, 2008. The symposium was chaired by Mr. Takahashi Hanazawa of Senior Vice President and Director of R&D Planning Dept, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) with approximately 260 participants, including those participating remotely, drawn from a wide range of organizations including the private sector, research institutes, international organizations and governments.

3. The Symposium had six substantive sessions: “Climate change: ICTs to the rescue?”, “Corporate responsibility: Towards a climate neutral ICT Sector”, “ICTs for monitoring climate change”, “ICTs as a clean technology”, “Towards a high band width, low carbon future” and “Adapting to climate change”.

4. In these sessions, it was recognized that the following aspects are vital to realizing a climate neutral, low carbon emission information society through the use of ICTs.

5. Climate change: ICTs to the rescue?
5.1 The ICT sector is experiencing rapid growth.
5.2 It is noted that the use of ICTs can help reduce GHG emissions indirectly through their application in other sectors of the economy, whereas the reduction of GHG emissions of ICT itself is also noted for careful consideration.
5.3 To promote the best use of ICTs, the following points were recognized:
- the positive economic benefits for the ICT sector that can be gained through an environmentally friendly approach to business;
- the need for exchange of views/information on policy development at national, regional, and global levels;
- the establishment of common approaches at the international levels to evaluate CO2 emissions;
- the development of policies to create an appropriate incentive mechanism; and
- the importance of awareness and pro environmental behaviour of individual ICT users.

6. Corporate responsibility: Towards a climate neutral ICT Sector
6.1 Each country should promote initiatives toward energy saving for ICT equipment and systems and encourage the adoption and use of energy saving.
6.2 There is also a corporate responsibility to achieve climate neutral status, in which public private partnership is essential. Creating the right environment, with appropriate incentives, is an important part of this process. To get this process moving, the following points were recognized:
- a positive outlook on environmental issues: not as a cost but as a business opportunity; and
- respect should be given to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and increased awareness among company executives.

7. ICTs for monitoring climate change
7.1 ICTs play a vital role in monitoring and addressing climate change by exploiting the experiences of basic science which has helped bring the issue of global warming into the public domain and to raise awareness of future challenges.
7.2 ICTs—used for instance in remote sensing, climate forecasting and environmental monitoring—can also help in mitigating and adapting to climate change.
7.3 To promote remote sensing utilizing ICTs, the following points were recognized:
- a cooperative relationship including the private sector at the international level;
- the efficient use of spectrum; and
- the greater use of observational data and a focus on efficient ways to distribute information such as disaster warnings.

8. ICTs as a clean technology
8.1 Each country should consider promoting the use of e government from national to local level, as well as the implementation and adoption of ICTs in various social systems, such as medical care, education, business and employment support system, in order to achieve a further reduction of GHGs through the use of ICTs.
8.2 ICTs can also be used by companies and individuals, for instance to substitute for travel, or for “dematerialization” of goods and services by replacing transport of “atoms” by the transport of “bits”.
8.3 From the viewpoint of ICTs as the means of helping developing countries, the importance of establishing monitoring systems, using ICTs, to forecast and monitor the impact of natural and manmade disasters is recognized.
8.4 Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to use ICTs for sustainable development is acknowledged.

9. Towards a high band width, low carbon future
9.1 ITU should take the initiatives that may be required for energy saving systems and applications where there is a requirement for standardization and the development of ITU Recommendations.
9.2 The positive benefits of ICTs with respect to climate change should be actively promoted to other sectors of the economy.
9.3 ITU should also work on the standardization of methodologies for the analysis, evaluation and quantification of the GHG reductions that may be achieved through the use of ICTs. It was proposed that ITUT establish a Focus Group, open to nonmembers. The Focus Group can be an appropriate place to discuss the role of ITUT toward a reduction in GHG emissions to be achieved through the implementation of ITU Recommendations.
9.4 Energy Saving measures are imperative in the development of ICTs, specifically for next generation networks, both wired and wireless, and for terminals and network infrastructure.
9.5 The possibility of applying the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to assist developing countries in making GHG reductions using ICTs could be studied.

10. Adapting to climate change
10.1 ITU should assist countries, particularly developing ones, and should show how ICTs can help with disaster preparedness against the risks associated with climate change, for instance in rising sea levels, extreme weather conditions, droughts etc.
10.2 The following issues were recognized as being of importance for adaptation:
- disaster preparedness;
- actions on food insecurity;
- use of remote sensing;
- assistance to rural communities; and
-coordinated actions to assist the most vulnerable countries.

11. Based on this analysis, we recognize the vitally important role that ICTs can play in developing a coherent global response to the challenge of climate change.
12. This chairman’s report will be forwarded to the London Symposium on ICTs and Climate Change (1718 June 2008), which is expected to build upon the outcome of this symposium, as a step towards preparing for the ITU World Telecommunications Standardization Assembly (WTSA08), to be held in Johannesburg in October 2008. At the Assembly, a draft Resolution on ICTs and climate change, as well as specific study questions on standardization, for the next study period (20092012) will be discussed, based on contributions from the ITU membership.
13. Based on this understanding, we confidently expect that the importance of efforts to use ICTs in combating climate change will be further recognized at other relevant meetings in the future, including the London symposium, the APEC TelMin meeting, the OECD Ministerial Meeting, to be held in Seoul in June 2008, and the G8 Summit.

Biodiesel Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcal) Jadi Proyek Nasional

Jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae) merupakan tumbuhan semak berkayu yang banyak ditemukan di daerah tropik. Tumbuhan ini dikenal sangat tahan kekeringan dan mudah diperbanyak dengan stek. Walaupun telah lama dikenal sebagai bahan pengobatan dan racun, saat ini ia makin mendapat perhatian sebagai sumber bahan bakar hayati untuk mesin diesel karena kandungan minyak bijinya. Peran yang agak serupa sudah lama dimainkan oleh kerabat dekatnya, jarak pohon (Ricinus communis), yang bijinya menghasilkan minyak campuran untuk pelumas.

Berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap keragaman di alam, tumbuhan ini diyakini berasal dari Amerika Tengah, tepatnya di bagian selatan Meksiko, meskipun ditemukan pula keragaman yang cukup tinggi di daerah Amazon. Penyebaran ke Afrika dan Asia diduga dilakukan oleh para penjelajah Portugis dan Spanyol berdasarkan bukti-bukti berupa nama setempat.

Kemampuan untuk diperbanyak secara klonal menyebabkan keanekaragaman tumbuhan ini tidak terlalu besar. Walaupun demikian, karena ia termasuk tumbuhan berpenyerbukan silang maka mudah terjadi rekombinasi sifat yang membawa pada tingkat keragaman yang cukup tinggi.

Biji (dengan cangkang) jarak pagar mengandung 20-40% minyak nabati, namun bagian inti biji (biji tanpa cangkang) dapat mengandung 45-60% minyak kasar. Berdasarkan analisis terhadap komposisi asam lemak dari 11 provenans jarak pagar, diketahui bahwa asam lemak yang dominan adalah asam oleat, asam linoleat, asam stearat, dan asam palmitat. Komposisi asam oleat dan asam linoleat bervariasi, sementara dua asam lemak yang tersisa, yang kebetulan merupakan asam lemak jenuh, berada pada komposisi yang relatif tetap (Heller 1996).

Jarak pagar dipandang menarik sebagai sumber biodiesel karena kandungan minyaknya yang tinggi, tidak berkompetisi untuk pemanfaatan lain (misalnya jika dibandingkan dengan kelapa sawit atau tebu), dan memiliki karakteristik agronomi yang sangat menarik.

Tanah tandus bisa menyelamatkan kesulitan negeri ini dalam menyediakan bahan bakar minyak (BBM) untuk rakyat. Dari sekitar 13 juta hektare lahan tandus di seluruh Indonesia, bila ditanami pohon jarak pagar dapat menghasilkan lebih dari 400 ribu barel solar per hari. Dengan produksi ini, pemerintah tak perlu pusing mengutak-atik RAPBN menyusul fluktuasi harga minyak.

Badan Pusat Statistik menyebutkan, semester I tahun ini, Indonesia mengimpor minyak senilai US$ 28,37 miliar. Nilai tersebut lebih besar dari periode sama tahun sebelumnya, yang mencapai US$ 20,96 miliar. Salah satu jenis BBM yang banyak dikonsumsi adalah solar. Sampai kini, konsumsi solar 460 ribu barel, atau 73.140.000 liter per hari. Tingginya angka penggunaan solar, sejatinya tidak harus ditutup melalui impor. Ada beberapa sumber energi alternatif yang bisa disubstitusikan sebagai pengganti solar. Salah satunya energi biodiesel berbahan dasar minyak jarak.

Pembuatan energi alternatif, kini mulai menggejala di berbagai belahan dunia. Sebagian negara ada yang mengembangkan biodiesel, sebagian lainnya mengaktifkan bioetanol. Ini berarti, Indonesia tidak sendirian ketika mencari sumber energi alternatif. Buktinya, negara sekelas Amerika Serikat saja, masih sibuk menggali sumber energi baru. Pekan pertama, Agustus ini, Presiden AS George W Bush menandatangani RUU Energi (Energy Bill) yang khusus mengatur Bio Fuel. Gejala serupa juga muncul di kalangan perusahaan minyak dunia. Misalnya, North Dakota Biodiesel Inc yang menginvestasikan US$ 50 juta untuk proyek biodiesel di Minot, North Dakota, USA. Biodiesel ini berbasis pada tanaman canola (sejenis gandum). Ini lah proyek terbesar di wilayah Amerika Utara, dengan produksi 100 ribu ton BBM.

Biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari 144 ribu hektar kebun canola. Produsen minyak kelapa sawit di Malaysia, IOI Corp dan Kuok Oil & Grains membangun dua penyulingan minyak kelapa sawit di Roterdam yang memproduksi lebih dari satu juta ton minyak kelapa sawit dalam satu tahun. Industri ini berencana memenuhi kebutuhan biodiesel di Eropa pada masa depan. Sementara itu, perusahaan minyak raksasa Brazil, Petrobras akan meningkatkan ekspor etanol sampai 9,4 miliar liter pada 2010, dari dua miliar liter tahun 2005.

Saat ini, Japan Mitsui & Co dan Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) turut mendukung rencana Petrobras melalui studi peningkatan ekspor etanol Brazil. Perusahaan dunia tersebut bukan tanpa alasan bila menjatuhkan pilihan kepada biodiesel. Apalagi secara prinsip kimia, penemuan energi alternatif berbeda tipis dengan penemuan energi konvensional (minyak bumi). Sebab, kata Direktur PT Rekayasa Industri Triharyo Soesilo, keduanya sama-sama mengaktifkan energi matahari. “Hanya saja, minyak bumi terjadi karena dipress sekian lama (di perut bumi). Namun energi itu bisa disimulasi di dalam tumbuh-tumbuhan atau buah-buahan,” tambahnya.

Proses simulasi energi ini lah yang menghasilkan bahan bakar biodiesel. Sayangnya sebagai negara katulistiwa, Indonesia belum maksimum mengonversi energi matahari. Berbeda faktanya dengan negara lain yang sama-sama negara khatulistiwa. Brazil, misalnya. Negeri Samba ini sukses mengonversi energi matahari yang tersimpan di dalam gula. Kini, Brazil sudah menghasilkan Bioetanol yang dijual US$ 25 per barel. “Ada sebuah teori yang mengatakan, nanti dunia ini ketika minyak bumi habis, tanahnya akan dibagi dua. Tanah lahan subur untuk makanan, tanah tidak produktif untuk bahan bakar melalui biodiesel, bioetanol, dan lain sebagainya,” papar Triharyo. Dari 13 juta hektare lahan kering di seluruh tanah air, kurang dari 10% yang sudah dan akan dipakai.

Ini ironi, karena pertumbuhan pohon jarak justru sempurna bila ditanam di lahan kering. Jika Indonesia baru memanfaatkan kurang dari 10%, itu mengisyaratkan belum optimalnya pemanfaatan lahan kering. Saat ini, kata Triharyo, ada tiga lembaga yang menanam jarak. Pertama, perkebunan milik PT Rekayasa Industri dan Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) berlokasi di Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) seluas 12 ha dengan 30 ribu pohon. Kedua, perkebunan milik PT Energi Alternatif Indonesia (ada 48 ribu pohon). Ketiga, Departemen Pertanian (3 ribu pohon) di Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).

Selain itu, PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI) juga berencana menanam jarak pagar di 2000-2500 ha lahan gundul di Purwakarta, Oktober mendatang. Sebelumnya, RNI sudah menanam di Indramayu seluas 850 ha. Di Bireun, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, ITB, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), dan Departemen Sosial (Depsos) bekerja sama menghidupkan 400 ha lahan kritis. Tiga bulan lagi, kata Guru Besar Kelautan dan Perikanan IPB Rohmin Dahuri, hasil budidaya pohon jarak sudah bisa dinikmati.

Solar yang dihasilkan akan memenuhi kebutuhan 200 kapal, satu pabrik es, satu cool storage, serta satu unit pembangkit listrik tenaga diesel. “Yang lebih indah bagi nelayan. Harganya Rp 2.000-2.500 per liter. Yang sebenarnya Rp 1.500 kembali ke dia karena jarak yang dikelola dari pabrik inti dibeli dari mereka,” jelas Rohmin.

Menurut perhitungan PT Rekayasa Industri, dari tiga juta ha lahan kering akan dihasilkan 92 ribu barel solar per hari. Untuk memenuhi lahan tersebut diperlukan sekitar 7,5 miliar bibit. Bila dari seluruh tanah tandus seluas 13 juta ha ditanam jarak pagar, solar yang dihasilkan lebih dari 400 ribu barel, Kendati sudah ditanam di beberapa tempat, budidaya jarak belum terkoordinasi secara nasional. Ini ironis, mengingat besarnya potensi di belakangnya.

Bayangkan, proyek percontohan di NTB dan Cilacap (Jawa Tengah), kata Tutik Herlina Mahendrato, business manager PT Rekayasa Industri, sudah dilirik sejumlah investor. Pada saat bersamaan, PT Energi Alternatif Indonesia sudah mengembangkan biodiesel buah jarak ke dalam skala industri. Sebuah pabrik dengan kapasitas produksi 1.000 liter solar/hari, kini berdiri di Tanjung Priok, Jakarta Utara. Produk biodiesel sudah dijual kepada pengusaha asal Jepang, serta sejumlah SPBU lokal.

Gerakan Nasional Ada banyak pertimbangan menjadikan biodiesel sebagai proyek nasional. Selain potensi bisnis, juga penuntasan beragam kendala di belakangnya. Harus ada yang bisa menjawab kenapa 13 juta ha lahan kering se-Indonesia tidak digarap sebagaimana mestinya. Lahan-lahan yang tersebar di wilayah Sumatera, Nusa Tenggara, Sulawesi, Jawa bagian selatan, serta Papua tersebut dibiarkan terkapar.

Nasibnya tidak berbeda dengan pesakitan yang menunggu ajal. “Menurut saya, pemerintah harus mengambil inisiatif,” ujar Rohmin. Sementara Triharyo mengatakan, presiden harus segera mengeluarkan peraturan khusus. Seluruh Departemen harus dikondisikan untuk mendukung dan mengampanyekan pembuatan dan pemakaian biodiesel.

Ketua Forum Biodiesel Indonesia (FBI) Tatang Soerawidjaja, menyoroti komunikasi masing-masing institusi. Pengembangan biodiesel terkesan jalan sendiri-sendiri karena komunikasi antar pakar, industriawan, serta pemerintah belum berjalan. Namun untungnya, Pertamina sebagai personifikasi pemerintah sudah membuka diri. “Bila Pertamina sudah ikut main maka pengembangan biodiesel sudah tidak ada masalah lagi,” tegasnya.

Sumber : Investor Daily Online (27/8/05)

Friday, 25 April 2008

Petani Muda Magang di Gunma selama setahun

Pada tanggal 25 April 2008 telah dilakukan acara penerimaan 11 petani muda magang asal Indonesia melakukan pelatihan di Gunma Prefecture. Salah satu petani muda tersebut I Ketut Suartika yang berasal dari Sangeh, Bali akan menimba teknik peternakan sapi di Gunma sejak April 2008. Baru selesai mengikuti pembekalan selama 10 hari di Sekolah Pertanian Menengah Atas (SPMA) Gunma Sdr. Ketut memperoleh kesempatan rileks sejenak di Taman Bunga Misato Shibazakura Koen yang letaknya tidak jauh dari SPMA Gunma (Gambar sebelah). Taman ini menyajikan pemandangan indah berupa hamparan aneka warna bunga Shibazakura yang dapat bertahan hidup selama sebulan. Taman dibuka untuk umum dari tanggal 5 April sampai dengan 6 Mei 2008.

Selama setahun Sdr. Ketut akan menimba teknik bertani ala Jepang, belajar beternak sapi di peternakan milik Mr. Morita. Sapi jenis ini setelah berumur 20 bulan berat-badannya bisa mencapai rata-rata 800 kg per ekor, harganya sekitar 450-500 yen per kg berat hidup. Sapi yang dipelihara sekarang tinggal separuhnya yaitu 150 ekor. Mr. Morita sengaja menurunkan jumlah sapi yang dipelihara karena harga makanan sekarang sangat tinggi, terutama jagung sebagai salah satu bahan makanan utamanya. Dia menduga harga jagung yang meningkat ini disebabkan jagung juga diserap pasar sebagai bahan pembuatan biofuel.

Fasilitas di kandang sapi
1.Tempat pemberian makanan sapi
2.Tempat minum sapi secara otomatis.
3.Terlihat Bahan makanan sapi dari jerami.
4.Tempat penyimpanan makanan.
5.Terlihat makanan dengan bahan pokok berasal dari jagung.
6.Tempat pengolahan kotoran menjadi kompos.
7.Bahan alas kandang sapi dari gergajian kayu.
8.Terlihat sapi berumur 8 bulan (gambar tengah)
9.Sapi berumur 20 bulan (gambar bawah) dengan berat 800 kg per ekor siap untuk dijual.

Thursday, 10 April 2008

Talas Jepang Satoimo

Awal keberadaan Talas Jepang Satoimo di Indonesia adalah pada masa pendudukan Jepang. Talas Jepang dikenal oleh masyarakat di Toraja dengan nama TALAS BITHEK, dan di Buleleng Bali dikenal dengan KELADI SALAK karena rangkaian umbinya seperti buah salak (LIPI, 2002)

Konsorsium Satoimo Indonesia-Jepang bekerjasama dengan KADIN Indonesia, telah mulai melakukan Pengembangan Budidaya Satoimo di Indonesia sejak tahun 2003. Hingga akhirnya pada 16 Februari 2006 hingga saat ini satoimo dari Indonesia telah diekspor ke Jepang.


50 % penduduk Jepang yang berjumlah ± 120 juta orang, mengkonsumsi Talas Jepang sebagai makanan pokok selain beras. Sehingga saat ini kebutuhan Jepang mencapai ± 360.000 ton pertahun (Otsubo,1996), sedangkan kapasitas produksi di Jepang terus menurun hingga 250.000 ton pertahun, karena keterbatasan lahan dan faktor iklim yang tidak memungkinkan untuk bertani sepanjang tahun (JETRO, 1994).

Kekurangan pasokan satoimo sebagaian besar diimpor Jepang dari China, yaitu mencapai ± 55.000 ton s/d 60.000 ton (JAPAN IMPORTS/EXPORTS). Oleh karena itu Jepang masih kekurangan pasokan satoimo sebesar ± 40.000 ton s/d 45.000 ton pertahun. Indonesia berpotensi untuk memenuhi kekurangan pasokan satoimo ke Jepang, karena merupakan negara agraris dengan dua musim yang dapat mendukung kegiatan pertanian sepanjang tahun.


UMBI SEGAR: Sumber Calsium dan Kalori yang tinggi, tetapi kandungan karbonhidratnya rendah sehingga dapat dikonsumsi sebagai makanan DIET juga baik untuk penderita DIABETES

PATI/POWDER: sebagai bahan produksi makanan/minuman sehat; seperti pengental (starch), bubur bayi makanan orang tua, bahan baku kue dan roti, pencampur tepung terigu sebagai pengganti kentang. Farmasi/obat-obatan: sebagai pengisi kapsul dan tablet.

SERAT/FIBRE : Sebagai bahan campuran pembuatan JELLY, Ice Cream biscuit filling, preparat sup, minuman berserat, pudding, makanan dan minuman diet dan penderita diabetes, dll.


Secara konvensional bibit tanaman Satoimo adalah berasal dari umbi . Selama ini, umbi untuk bibit tersebut diimpor dari Negara China, dengan resiko yang ditanggung:

1. Kadang2 umbi yang sudah diterima sudah busuk hinggga 25%
2. Membawa hama penyakit dari China yang berbahaya
3. Umbi gagal disemai
4. Kualitas Umbi beragam, baik ukuran maupun umur
6. Karena hasil impor, harga Umbi lebih mahal.

Oleh karena itu Lab kultur jaringan SEAMEO BIOTROP Sejak tahun 2006 mulai memproduksi bibit Talas Jepang melalui teknik kultur jaringan, sehingga diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan Petani akan bibit Talas Jepang /Satoimo berkualitas, bebas penyakit dengan harga terjangkau.


1.Tanaman talas menyukai tanah yang gembur, kaya akan bahan organik atau humus.

2.Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh pada daerah dengan berbagai jenis tanah, misalnya tanah lempung yang subur dan coklat, tanah vulkanik, andosol, tanah latosol.

3.Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang tinggi, harus tumbuh di tanah drainase baik dan PH 5,5-6,5. Bila PH dibawah 5,0 tanah harus diberi perlakuan kapur 1 ton/HA.

4.Tanaman ini membutuhkan tanah yang lembab dan cukup air. Apabila tidak tersedia air yang cukup atau mengalami musim kemarau yang panjang, tanaman talas sulit tumbuh.

5.Selama pertumbuhan tanaman ini menyukai tempat terbuka dengan penyinaran penuh serta pada lingkungan dengan suhu 25-30 °C dan kelembaban tinggi.


1.Penataan lahan ( pembuatan guludan /bedengan ) Ukuran panjang guludan/bedengan dapat disesuiakan dengan luasan lahan yang ada, sedangkan lebar 120 cm dan tingginya 15 cm. pembuatan lobang tanam dengan jarak 60 cm x 40 cm dengan diameter lobang 25 cm dan kedalaman 15 cm.

2.Pemberian KOMPOS 400-500 gr, pupuk NPK ( 15-15-15 ) 5 gr, dan 2 gr furadan pada setiap lubang tanam, kemudian DIADUK secara merata dengan tanah yang ada dilobang dan disiram air secukupnya, selanjutnya didiamkan selama 2 s/d 4 hari sebelum mulai tanam.

3.Umbi yang telah tumbuh berdaun dua dan telah berakar (kondisi sehat), diletakkanpada lobang tanam dengan kedalaman dari permukaan maksimum 10 cm. Selanjutnya ditimbun dengan tanah disekitar lobang dan disiram.

4.Penyiraman setiap hari pagi dan sore jika diperlukan sesuai dengan kondisi kelembaban tanah disekitar tanaman.

5.Pemberian pupuk NPK ( 15-15-15 ) 5 gr setiap tanaman pada umur tanaman 1 bulan setelah tanam yang ditaburkan 10 cm – 20 cm dari batang tanaman (melingkar) dan langsung ditimbun tanah sekitarnya,

6.Pembersihan gulma dan pembumbunan tanah, tingginya bumbunan 5 s/d 10 cm dari pangkal batang tanaman itu sendiri, juga dilakukan kalau terjadi erosi karena hujan.

7.Panen dapat dilakukan setelah tanaman berumur antara +/-5 bulan setelah tanam.

ANALISA USAHA (1 HA, 6 bulan)


1. Sewa lahan (6 bulan) = Rp. 1.000.000,-
2. Persiapan dan Pengolahan Lahan = Rp. 2.500.000,-
3. Bibit 25.000 umbi @ Rp.300,- = Rp. 7.500.000,-
4. Kompos 10 ton @ Rp.500,-/kg = Rp. 5.000.000,-
5. Pupuk NPK 250 kg @ Rp4.000 = Rp. 1.000.000,-
6. Obat-obatan/pestisida = Rp. 1.000.000,-
7. Upah Tenaga Kerja
a. Pembibitan 25 HOK @ Rp.15.000,- = Rp. 375.000,-
b. Penanaman 25 HOK @ Rp.15.000,- = Rp. 375.000,-
c. Pemeliharaan 25 HOK @ Rp.15.000,-(3 x) = Rp. 1.125.000,-
d. Panen 50 HOK @ Rp.15.000,- = Rp. 750.000,-
e. Pasca panen 50 HOK @ Rp.15.000,- = Rp. 750.000,-
Total Biaya Langsung = Rp. 21.375.000,-
8. Biaya Modal 18% per tahun (6/12 x 18% x Rp.21.375.000) = Rp. 1.923.750,-
Total Biaya = Rp. 23.298.750,-

II. PENDAPATAN (Asumsi Hasil Panen 20.000 Kg/HA;Harga Satoimo Rp.2000/kg)
20.000 Kg x Rp. 2.000,- = Rp. 40.000.000,-

III. KEUNTUNGAN (per HA) = Rp. 16.701.250,-

Sumber : Website Services Laboratory - SEAMEO BIOTROP

Tuesday, 8 April 2008

WTO members set to agree on regionalization, improved SPS transparency

WTO members have reached an apparent consensus on two sets of procedures aimed at strengthening their work on sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS, ie, food safety and animal and plant health). One is on recognizing that regions (within a country or spanning borders) are free from diseases or pests, the other is on improving the information they share with each other, a crucially important part of member governments’ work in the WTO. Both were approved conditionally in the WTO SPS Committee’s 2–3 April 2008 meeting, and will be adopted if no one objects within the next few weeks. They encourage WTO members also to notify when they adopt international standards. (If the “regionalization” guidelines are not adopted, their transparency provisions will be inserted into this text.)

Meanwhile, information is increasingly being made available through on-line technology. Members were briefed on further enhancements to the WTO’s SPS Information Management System, a searchable database for all notifications, specific trade concerns raised in the committee and other information, the FAO’s International Portal on Food Safety, Animal and Plant Health and a similar “portal” of the International Plant Protection Convention.

Specific trade concerns (STCs)

Code numbers, eg, “STC229”, identify particular issues and can be used to search the WTO’s SPS Information Management System.

Specific trade concerns: resolved

Canada’s restrictions on enoki mushrooms (STC229): Chinese Taipei said Canada has allowed imports to resume following consultations and Canadian officials’ visits to production sites.

Japan’s import suspension on Chinese heat-processed straw and forage for feed (STC222): China said Japan’s ban has been lifted following consultations and site visits.

Specific trade concerns: new

The EU’s proposed maximum residue levels for ethephon in pineapple: Ecuador, Also discussed were a number of concerns members raised about specific measures other governments have introduced, including some related to issues that have been raised several times before such as avian influenza (“bird flu”), foot and mouth disease, and BSE (“mad cow disease”).

And the meeting heard a warning that standards set by private bodies could undermine the science-based and democratically agreed standards of multilateral organizations and cause difficulties for developing countries.

The caution came from Dr Bernard Vallat, director-general of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) in the latest of a series of discussions about standards set by the private sector, in particular supermarket chains and bodies representing them.

This was the first time the head of the OIE has attended a WTO SPS Committee meeting. The multilateral standard-setting organizations he had in mind are in particular, the OIE and the SPS Committee’s two other “sisters” — Codex Alimentarius, which deals with food safety, and the International Plant Protection Convention.

The week began with a workshop on SPS capacity evaluation tools organized under the jointly-run Standards and Trade Development Facility.

The SPS Committee comprises all WTO members and is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the WTO SPS Agreement.


The key concept here is recognition that an exporting region (part of a country or a border-straddling zone) is disease-free or pest-free (or has a lower incidence). When importing countries recognize different situations in different regions, their restrictions on products from areas with disease do not apply to whole countries. It is often raised as a specific trade concern as well as being discussed as a subject in its own right.

The text that members conditionally adopted comes from the work of a small group of countries, coordinated by New Zealand and is a compromise after about one year of work within the group and five years of discussion in the SPS Committee. It has been circulated in document G/SPS/W/218, as non-binding guidelines for implementing regionalization. These include various recommended steps to be taken by an importing and an exporting country discussion a region’s status.

In an informal meeting on 1 April, some countries involved in the group signalled their disappointment that the guidelines are not stronger in trying to avoid “undue delays” in recognizing a region’s status. But others urged them to accept the compromise so that what has been agreed so far can be implemented; the guidelines can be revised in the future on the basis of experience, they said.

The committee formally agreed that if no member objects by 15 May, the guidelines will be adopted. (Officially, the committee has adopted the guidelines “ad referendum")


Also adopted provided no one objects — this time by 30 May — are revised recommendations on how governments provide information on new or proposed measures they take on food safety and animal and plant health.

Sharing and commenting on this information is one of the SPS Committee’s most important tasks — members use the committee to ensure that SPS measures comply with the WTO agreement, meaning they are based on science or international standards and are not protectionism in disguise.

The new recommendations will be a third revision of the present set, G/SPS/7/Rev.2. They include new procedures and forms for notifications, details of new on-line databases where the notifications and other relevant information is compiled, and supported by Costa Rica, said the EU’s proposed new maximum residue level of 0.5mg/kg for this plant growth regulator is too low, not based on science and stricter than the international standard of Codex Alimentarius. The EU replied that its own producers would also have to meet the proposed new limit and are also concerned, and invited the two countries to provide scientific evidence to show that the proposed new limit is too strict.

Malaysia’s charges for on-site inspection missions: Brazil — supported by the EU, Australia and New Zealand — complained that Malaysia’s new charge of $30,000 per establishment is exorbitant, particularly since the results are only valid for a year, requiring annual inspections for approvals to be extended. Malaysia said that the costs of inspecting on SPS and Halal grounds has risen considerably, but that the new costs are not in place yet. The comments will be transmitted to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia said.

US regulatory process, including need for economic analysis: Brazil questioned whether SPS regulations should also require economic analysis and whether this would delay or disrupt approval for imports. The US replied that the requirement applies to all new regulations so that the government can assess the economic impact, but that SPS measures are only based on science and risk assessment.

Specific trade concerns: unresolved

Among the issues that have been raised before and remain unresolved.

India’s restrictions on animal products (STC185): This is an on-going concern related to avian influenza raised by the EU, supported by Australia and the US. The EU said although some restrictions have been relaxed, others remain, even though they are not based on science or the standards of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). For example India should not restrict imports of heat treated products, where any virus would have been destroyed, and pigmeat, the EU said. India said the measures are necessary because of the huge risks to livestock and humans on small farms. (The EU had a similar concern over Egypt’s restrictions on heat-treated products)

Private sector standards

Following OIE Director-General Bernard Vallat’s comments on private sector standards, members agreed to consider setting up a small group to work on this issue — they will discuss this in June.

Uruguay and Egypt led a group of developing countries highly critical of private sector standards on the grounds that the standards are arbitrary and can be difficult for developing countries to meet. They said the SPS Agreement obliges governments to ensure non-governmental bodies also respect the agreement. Others said that like it or not, the private sector will continue to set these standards for a variety of issues, ranging from sustainability and organic production to animal welfare. The World Bank, an observer, said research shows that meeting private standards does not always penalize developing countries and in some cases helps them to export.

However members generally agreed with Dr Vallat that the SPS Committee’s focus should be on health and safety issues.

Private sector entities setting up their own standards include supermarket chains and “GLOBALGAP”, previously the Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group’s EurepGap — GAP is “good agricultural practices”.

When first raised in 2005, this issue took the SPS Committee into comparatively new territory — the committee generally deals with standards set by international standards-setting bodies and those imposed by governments. Private sector standards were first raised in June 2005 by St Vincent and the Grenadines, because of private standards for bananas. St Vincent and the Grenadines complained that private standards are often more rigid than international standards, causing small farmers to suffer.

Since then the issue has been raised regularly in the SPS Committee, and a workshop on private and commercial standards was organized by the WTO and UNCTAD on Monday 25 June 2007.

Sources : 2008 WTO NEWS ITEMS on 2 and 3 April 2008

Friday, 4 April 2008

Prosedur Pemasukan Benih Tumbuhan ke Indonesia


1. Setiap benih tumbuhan yang dimasukan ke dalam wilayah negara Republik Indonesia wajib :

a. Dilengkapai sertifikat kesehatan tumbuhan (Phytosanitary Certificate) dari Negara Asal dan Negara Transit;
b. Disertai Surat Ijin Pemasukan (SIP) dari Menteri Pertanian atau pejabat yang ditunjuknya;
c. Melalui tempat-tempat pemasukan yang telah ditetapkan;
d. Dilaporkan dan diserahkan kepada petugas Karantina Tumbuhan setibanya di tempat pemasukan untuk keperluan tindakan Karantina Tumbuhan

2. Untuk penerbitan Surat Ijin Pemasukan (SIP) benih Tumbuhan, Menteri Pertanian atau Pejabat yang mengatasnamakannya akan memperhatikan persyaratan teknis karantina dan kelengkapan dokumen yang ditetapkan berdasarkan Analisis Resiko Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan (AROPT).

3. Analisis Resioko Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan dilaksanakan dengan berpedoman kepada standar internasional pengaturan Fitosanitari (International Standar for Phytosanitary Measures) yang diterbitkan oleh Sekretariat IPPC (International Plant Protection Convention).

4. Kajian analisis resiko organisme pengganggu tumbuhan meliputi :

a. Kajian awal tentang informasi pengelolaan sertifikasi benih dan sertifikasi kesehatan benih serta situasi organisme pengganggu tumbuhan karantina (OPTK) di Negara Asal;
b. Hasil kajian AROPT merupakan rekomendasi tentang persyaratan teknis yang dikenakan terhadap benih tumbuhan yang akan diimpor dan rekomendasi tersebut disampaikan kepada pejabat yang berwenang memberikan Surat Ijin Pemasukan (SIP).

5. Pemeriksaan Karantina di negara asal dilakukan berdasarkan pertimbangan kesulitan teknis dilakukannya tindakan karantina di tempat pemasukan dan/atau analisis resiko organisme pengganggu tumbuhan di negara asal yang merupakan daerah sebar organisme pengganggu tumbuhan karantina yang beresiko tinggi.

6. Pemeriksaan di negara asal dilakukan oleh petugas Karantina Tumbuhan dan petugas ahli lainnya yang diperlukan.

7. Apabila diperlukan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia dapat melakukan kerjasama bilateral dengan negara pengirim benih, melalui program klarifikasi (pre clearance program).

8. Pemasukan benih tumbuhan yang tidak memenuhi ketentuan dalam prosedur tetap ini ditolak pemasukannya ke dalam wilayah negara Republik Indonesia.

Sumber : Keputusan Kepala badan Karantina Pertanian Nomor : 152/Kpts/PD.540/L/8/03 tanggal 8 Agustus 2003

Prosedur Pemasukan Hasil Tumbuhan ke Indonesia


1. Any importation of plant products is subject to the following conditions:
a. Importation must be made through designated points of entry;
b. Accompanied by Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the Plant Quarantine Service of the Country of Origin and Country/countries where the consignments are transit;
c. Notified and submitted to Plant Quarantine Inspectors upon arrival of the consignment for quarantine actions

2. Notwithstanding to general condition mentioned above, the importation of the particular plant products are subjected to specific condition based on the Pest Risk Analyzes (PRA).

3. The result of the PRA will determine the status of the introduction and technical requirements which will be needed to the importation of plant products.

4. The plant quarantine inspections in the country of origin (pre-shipment inspection system) will be held based on the technical difficulties of implementation of quarantine action in the entry points and/or the result of PRA shows that the country origin is determined as distribution area of harmful plant pests.

5. The plant quarantine inspections in the country of origin will be performed by the Indonesian Plant Quarantine Inspectors.

6. If needed, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia could make a bilateral cooperation with the exportation country through classified program (pre clearance program).

7. The importation of plant products which are not fullfiled the requirement of the standard procedure should be refused entry into the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.


1.Setiap hasil tumbuhan yang dimasukan ke dalam wilayah negara Asal Republik Indonesia wajib :

a.Dilengkapi sertifikat kesehatan tumbuhan dari negara asal dan negara transit;
b.Melalui tempat-tempat pemasukan yang telah ditetapkan;
c.Dilaporkan dan diserahkan kepada petugas karantina tumbuhan setibanya di tempat pemasukan untuk keperluan tindakan karantina tumbuhan.

2.Dalam hal tertentu, terhadap pemasukan hasil tumbuhan ke dalam wilayah negara Republik Indonesia dapat dikenakan kewajiban tambahan berdasarkan analisis resiko organisme pengganggu tumbuhan.

3.Hasil analisis resiko organisme pengganggu tumbuhan akan menentukan status pemasukan dan persyaratan teknis yang diperlukan terhadap pemasukan hasil tumbuhan.

4.Pemeriksaan karantina di negara asal di lakukan berdasarkan pertimbangan kesulitan teknis dilakukannya tindakan karantina di tempat pemasukan dan/atau analisis resiko organisme pengganggu tumbuhan negara asal merupakan daerah sebar organisme pengganggu tumbuhan karantina (OPTK) yang beresiko tinggi.

5.Pemeriksaan di negara asal dilakukan oleh Petugas Karantina Tumbuhan.

6.Apabila diperlukan pemerintah Republik Indonesia dapat melakukan kerjasama bilateral dengan negara pengirim hasil tumbuhan, melalui program klarifikasi (pre clearance program)

7.Pemasukan hasil tumbuhan yang tidak memenuhi ketentuan dalam prosedur tetap ini ditolak pemasukannya ke dalam wilayah negara Republik Indonesia.

Sumber : Keputusan Kepala badan Karantina Pertanian Nomor : 152/Kpts/PD.540/L/8/03 tanggal 8 Agustus 2003.

Thursday, 3 April 2008

Gleneagles-Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development 4th Ministerial Meeting Chiba, JAPAN 14-16 March, 2008

Chairs’ Conclusions

The Ministerial Meeting of the Dialogue on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development was launched at G8 summit at Gleneagles 2005. The first meeting was held in London in Oct. and Nov. 2005, followed by the second meeting in Monterey in Oct. 2006 and the third meeting in Berlin in Sep. 2007.

During the past sessions of the Dialogue, the following general understandings had been shared, with the assistance of the inputs from the IEA and the World Bank;
• Both the development of new technologies and the deployment of existing technologies are equally important. Cooperation between developed and developing countries, and between public and private sectors is essential.
• Future investment is needed on a large scale. A wide range of policies should be implemented in a clear and predictable way in order to mobilize private investment.
• It is necessary to deal with sustainable development and climate change at the same time. Adaptation and reducing emissions from deforestation are also important.

It had been acknowledged that these discussions during the Dialogues in the past are useful inputs and complementary to the process under the UNFCCC for the post-2012 framework.

In order to wrap up these past 2-year discussions and prepare a report to the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit, the 4th meeting was held in Chiba from the 14th to the 16th of March 2008, and focused on the issues on Technology, Finance and Investments, and post-2012 framework.

This meeting was attended by ministers and senior officials responsible for energy and environment issues from G8, from Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, South Africa, Spain and Slovenia as current presidency of the EU. We were joined by senior officials from international organizations including the International Energy Agency, the World Bank, Regional Development Banks, and business groups from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Nippon Keidanren and the World Economic Forum, non-governmental organizations as well as legislators from the GLOBE.

Regarding the following issues discussed at this Dialogue,

[Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy]

Acknowledged the importance of improving energy efficiency, as one of the lowest cost and most effective means to immediately reduce GHG emissions, on a global scale including through cooperative sectoral approach, international partnership, and domestic actions for each country.

Highlighted the necessity of technology deployment and transfer to developing countries.

Acknowledged the importance of capacity building and discussed the role of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights).

Noted that countries which decided to choose the option for nuclear energy recognized the contribution of nuclear power to emission reduction while those which decided otherwise expressed their concern about security.

Noted the importance of renewable energy.

[Innovative Technology]

Exchanged information on international initiatives to develop innovative technologies.

Shared the necessity of expanding and strengthening international cooperation and sharing road maps on technology RD & D.

Emphasized the importance of CCS.

[Sectoral Approach]

Provided experiences based on sectoral approach (e.g., APP).

Discussed the effectiveness of sectoral approach and recognized the necessity to continue further discussion in order to reach common understanding.

Emphasized the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capability in the context of sectoral approach.

[The Role of the IEA]

Appreciate the work of IEA and pointed out challenges to be addressed (including data collection and the future role of IEA).

[Activities by Private Sector]

Appreciated business initiatives for implementation of sector-based activities (including data collection).

[International Financial Mechanism for Mitigation and Adaptation]

Appreciated the work of the World Bank and Regional Development Banks under the framework for clean energy and development and encouraged them to continue and enhanced these efforts.

Appreciated the initiatives by Japan, UK and US to create a new multilateral fund for climate change in collaboration with the World Bank.

Exchanged views on governance of international funding arrangements.

Acknowledged to coordinate various existing and new funds in order to avoid duplication.

Recognized the need to prioritize financial support for adaptation to the most vulnerable countries such as Least Developed Countries and Small Islands Developing States.

Noted the importance of exploring innovative financial mechanisms.

Noted a Multinational Fund for Climate Change to support mitigation and adaptation activities proposed by Mexico.

Noted the necessity of scaling up CDM while recognizing the need for improvement.

Acknowledged the importance of mainstreaming mitigation and adaptation into development policy.

Recognized the importance of maximizing co-benefits (e.g. air pollution reduction) in financial assistance.

Reaffirmed the necessity to give appropriate incentives for preventing deforestation and forest degradation.

[Mobilization of Private Investment]

Recognized the importance of mobilization of private investment and the role of governments to remove the obstacles for investment.

Discussed the relationship between carbon markets and private investments.

Post-2012 Framework

[Long-term Goal]

Acknowledged the importance of sharing a long-term goal.

Shared the common understanding of the necessity to move toward sustainable low-carbon societies.

Pointed out the necessity to identify a long-term policy which functions as a reliable and clear signal to the private sector.

[Mid-term Goal]

Reaffirmed the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities as a premise of the discussion.

Noted the necessity to take into consideration the change of global situation from 1992 to 2008.

Recognized to necessity to ensure equity to realize sustainable development and effective emission reduction.

Shared the necessity to continue substantial discussion on sectoral approach, with the understanding that it does not replace quantified national target for GHGs emissions reductions.

[Global Actions]

Noted developed countries will take the lead in combating climate change while ensuring the comparability of efforts among them.

Acknowledged developing countries will take measurable, reportable and verifiable actions with support from developed countries.

Shared that adaptation and mitigation are equally important, and technology and finance are necessary ways to achieve them.

Recognized in particular the unique role that the countries at the Gleneagles Dialogue can play in terms of initiatives and cooperation leading to emission reduction.

Noted the importance of carbon market role.

Acknowledged the importance of counter measures for deforestation and forest degradation particularly for developing countries.

[Road to Copenhagen]

Appreciated the fruits of this dialogue (substantial contribution to the agreement on Bali Action Plan) and expected it to become a useful contribution to the discussion in the AWGLCA under the Convention.

Highlighted the value of this dialogue and other such dialogues in contributing to a successful outcome in Copenhagen.

Tuesday, 1 April 2008

Penanganan sumber air antisipasi perubahan iklim

Dalam rangka mengamati penanganan sumber air akibat perubahan iklim telah dilaksanakan Special Symposium ”Climate Change and Water”-Towards the 1st Asia-Pacific Water Summit and Beyond- yang diselenggarakan oleh Japan Water Forum di JETRO Headquarters Tokyo, Ark Mori Building 5F, Tokyo.

Kata perubahan iklim dunia untuk masa mendatang tidak tepat. Karena perubahan terjadi secara drastis pada saat tertentu. Perubahan dimaksud merupakan suatu yang jelas dan dapat diukur dengan cepat. Sedangkan perubahan pada iklim tidak seperti dimaksud tersebut, sehingga kata yang paling tepat atau realistis adalah evolusi iklim.

Evolusi iklim dan efek yang ditimbulkannya terhadap air telah diketahui oleh manusia. Manusia telah tahu bagaimana untuk beradaptasi terhadap perubahan ini. Evolusi iklim bukan merupakan penyebab pertama kekurangan air. Manusia telah belajar keadaan alam ini setiap hari sehingga tentunya manusia dapat mengetahui alam ini secara baik.

Kekurangan air diakibatkan oleh pertumbuhan demografis, pertumbuhan populasi penduduk yang alami serta penyebaran penduduk yang tidak merata pada permukaan planet. Pertambahan satu milyar lebih manusia setiap 10 – 12 tahun akan menjadi masalah yang tidak mudah mengambil jalan keluarnya, dan dapat menyebabkan tertundanya pencapaian sasaran pengembangan melinium. Ditambah lagi sebagian besar dari populasi yang banyak ini bertempat tinggal di kota-kota besar dan di daerah pantai, hal ini telah menciptakan wilayah baru yang sulit memperoleh sumber air.

Di kota-kota tersebut ketersediaan air tidak sesuai dengan kebutuhan manusia akibat evolusi ini. Banyak kota-kota besar yang telah atau akan menderita kekurangan air selama abad ini akibat tidak terdapat peraturan mengenai langkah-langkah yang harus diambil untuk menangani masalah genting secara cepat. Pada dewasa ini, strategi yang penting adalah memetakan sumber air dan pertumbuhan penduduk.

Apabila kegiatan manusia tidak memperhatikan mutu air akan menimbulkan masalah kehidupan manusia. Kegiatan utama seperti kegiatan yang dilakukan dalam bidang perindustrian dan pertanian. Kegiatan yang dikhawatirkan adalah kegiatan yang dapat menimbulkan kontaminasi air yang dapat mengancam terpenuhinya kebutuhan air yang berasal dari sumber air alami tanpa perlakuan dan pemurnian. Hal tersebut akan menyebabkan kesulitan mendapatkan air dalam jumlah banyak.

Hal-hal yang perlu dilakukan dalam rangka penghemat air adalah menghentikan pembuangan sampah dalam segala bentuknya. Artinya semua sampah harus didaur ulang untuk diambil manfaat sebanyak-banyaknya. Kita harus melakukan usaha penggunaan air lebih sedikit mungkin dimanapun berada dan untuk kegiatan apapun.

Beberapa tindakan yang perlu dilakukan secara bersama-sama oleh pemerintah, swasta dan masyarakat umum adalah sebagai berikut:

a.Mencegah terjadinya kerusakan kronis tempat sumber air melalui pencegahan polusi air terhadap bahan kimia dan bahan lain yang menimbulkan rusaknya kualitas air sungai dan mata air.

b.Mencegah dan memerangi polusi akibat kecelakaan transportasi, kebakaran, ledakan, kerusakan pipa dan sebagainya.

c.Menjaga dan mengawasi tempat pengolahan sumber air bersih.

d.Memonitor sumber air secara berkala baik mutu maupun jumlah air di setiap sumber air.

e.Mengatur sumber air dengan cara menjaga fasilitas umum, dan mengatur pemenuhan kebutuhan air untuk jangka waktu lama.

f.Menghemat penggunaan air dengan cara mencegah hilangnya air pada saluran air dan memonitor penggunaan air PAM (ledeng).